Benefits and drivers
The case for making our society more universally accessible and usable to all is a compelling one on many fronts. Universal Design proposes a progressive and evolving approach to the development of inclusive environments that can be accessed, understood and used to the greatest extent possible. Not only does Universal Design make good business sense, it also has many compelling social and legal drivers.
The human-centred approach to design that Universal Design supports is user-friendly and convenient, but is also respectful of user dignity, rights and privacy.
The degree of difficulty that people experience when using a product, service or environment can vary, such as:
- A person who has no significant problems but who would appreciate a well-designed accessible and usable product, service or environment;
- A person who has little difficulty with all features;
- A person who has difficulty with some features;
- A person who has trouble with most features;
- A person who is unable to use the product at all.
The degree of personal benefit will vary accordingly therefore. If a product, service or environment is well designed, with accessibility and usability in mind, all of the people in the categories above will benefit.
The age-distribution of the world's population is changing dramatically. People are living longer as a result of medical developments in the last century and healthier lifestyle changes. The following key statistics show some the demographic changes expected in the first half of the 21st century:
- A child born today has a 50 percent chance of surviving to over 80 years of age.
- By 2021, it is predicted that 15 percent of the Irish population will be over the age of 65.
- By 2021, the number of people over 80 years of age will have increased by two-thirds.
- By 2050 it is estimated that there will only be two 18-64 year olds for every one person over 65 in Ireland, in comparison to six for every one at present.
Within the coming decades in Europe and Ireland, the number of people who are available and capable of assisting and caring for older people will decrease considerably.
The number of people living with physical, sensory, mental health or intellectual impairments is increasing, as is the life expectancy of people with particularly severe or multiple impairments.
Universal Design creates inclusive design solutions and promotes accessibility and usability, allowing people with all levels of ability to live independently. The ability of a person to remain as independent as possible can be influenced by how accessible and usable products, services and environments are. Factors that promote independent living, such as Universal Design, have a key role to play in dealing with this global phenomenon.
Ability as a Continuum
Universal design assumes that the range of human ability is ordinary, not special.
Elaine Ostroff, 2001
No two people are the same and no two people have exactly the same ability. The considerable variation that exists between people can be influenced by both external and internal factors. Ability can vary according to the type of activity in which a person is participating or the environment in which that person is carrying out the activity.
Every person experiences reduced functioning at some stage during his or her lifetime. For example "noisy environments impair anyone's hearing; [a] dimly lit rooms impair anyone's vision; and having the flu reduces anyone's stamina" (Molly Follette Story and James Mueller, 2001)
A Universal Design approach therefore requires an appreciation of the varied abilities of every person and to design in such a way that the resulting product, service or environment can be used by everyone regardless of age, size, ability or disability.
Participation in society
In this technological age, the skills required to participate in society are becoming increasingly complex. As each technological innovation is adopted the risks to people who do not adopt of being excluded from accessing a whole range of financial, state, social or cultural services or amenities increases. Technology is increasingly embedded into the built environment and products so that the lines of what is specifically product, ICT or building design have become blurred.
In order the facilitate people with differing abilities, of differing ages and sizes within society, systems and building must be designed with the user at the centre of the design process. A universally designed environment promotes equality and makes life easier and safer for everyone.
The benefits to business of adopting a Universal Design approach vary from increases in potential markets to increased customer satisfaction. For more information on business that have taken advantage of the business benefits of Universal Design read the case studies provided.
Increased Market Reach
Universal Design aims to provide a design which is accessible to, usable by and appealing to as many people as possible. One implication of this is an increase in the market reach. Not only could a product, service or environment become available to a higher number of potential customers, but also to a wider range of potential customers as well.
Enhanced Customer Satisfaction and Retention
A satisfied customer will tell other people about the product, service or environment, increasing awareness and potentially creating new custom.
Market Crossover Success
Products that are aimed at a specific target group can sometimes generate interest and demand from unforeseen markets. The OXO Good Grips range is a well cited case study of how a specialised product design (designed with older people with arthritis in mind) can generate widespread demand.
Positive Public Image
A business that positively contributes to society by incorporating a Universal Design approach is likely to receive a reputation for having a high level of corporate social responsibility.
Increased Consumer Expectations
In recent decades, the voice of the general public has become more prominent and more influential. People are more confident to speak up when they have a complaint and information and communication technologies (ICT) have made this increasingly easier to do. Direct pressure from consumer groups as well as direct engagement with their customers have encouraged many companies to evolve their design process and improve their customer services to accommodate a wider range of people. Universal Design enables companies to design products and service and environments that more closely match consumer expectations and needs.
Accept at First Use
A consumer forms an opinion about a product at first use, or even first sight. A recent study suggested that internet users take less than 50 milliseconds (one twentieth of a second) to judge the visual appeal of a website they have visited.
If a first impression is negative, a consumer is not likely to pay for a product. If a product is simple, clear, easy to access and easy to use, a consumer will be more likely to proceed with the transaction.
Standards and guidelines provide practical guidance on how to comply with legislation. The specifications and minimum requirements provided in standards and guidelines often include accessibility and usability recommendations. So, with regard to the design of a product, service or environment, Universal Design is an approach that not only promotes compliance, but has much wider potential for improving accessibility and usability, beyond the minimum requirements enforced by law.
- Sandhu et al., 2002
- Vanderheiden, 2000
- WHO, 2001
- Ostroff, 2001
- Eckberg, 1999
- United Nations, 2001
- Grundy, 1996
- ISME, 2005
- Central Statistics Office, 2005
- Keates & Clarkson, 2004
- National Council on Disability, 2004
- Story et al., 1998
- MaGee, 2003
- Story et al., 1998
- Lidwell et al. 2003
- Norman, 2004
- NCSU, 2007
- Anderson, 1980, 1981
- Lindgaard et al., 2006